Title: Area between Peaks Feature in the Derivative Reflectance Curve as a Sensitive Indicator of Change in Chlorophyll Concentration
Eric Ariel L. Salas, Geoffrey M. Henebry
Abstract: Vegetation spectral features can detect chlorophyll concentrations. Two key spectral features evident in the first derivative (FD) of reflectance constitute the two main peaks: one located around 685-705 nm and the other near 710-725 nm. We propose that the area between peaks (ABP) can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in the photosynthetic pigments at leaf level and demonstrate it using a high-spectral-resolution dataset of maize leaves collected by Gitelson and coworkers (2005). We find significant high positive correlations (r2 > 0.90) between chlorophyll concentrations and both the ABP and its continuum length feature. Read more here.
MapQuest, Inc., has launched an enhanced device-specific navigation app
optimized for the Amazon Fire phone available today. The free app
provides a customized experience leveraging the Fire phone’s Dynamic
Perspective functionality including tilt-activated menus, layer bars and
“Working on Amazon’s Fire phone was a refreshing development ecosystem, providing a unified vision for the MapQuest team to create an app that operates more quickly than many other platforms,” said Brian McMahon, general manager, MapQuest. “MapQuest’s free apps and experiences are agnostic across all devices, which is great for our more than 40 million users who have been with us for years and are excited to try Amazon’s new phone.”
MapQuest’s Navigation Apps
MapQuest’s personalized navigation experience has long been touted as both easy-to-use and better at connecting people to the maps and routes that shape their everyday lives. Today’s additional features add to the recent updates MapQuest incorporated into its mobile navigation apps for the Amazon Appstore, including:
- NEW! – Tilt-activated menus beautifully engineered for Fire phone’s unique panels
- NEW! – Layers bar relocation under widget for better consumer experience on Fire device
- NEW! – 3-D logo icon for better legibility on Fire phone’s screen
- NEW! – More customization from map icon to specific navigation options (last location, home, work)
- High-resolution vector maps: Beautifully designed maps offer improved quality and resolution, enhanced zoom features and new cartography
- New interactive map layers and customizable category buttons: These features make finding nearby business and popular locations quick and easy
- An industry-first ETA status bar: A status bar informs users of time and distance to their destination, as well as anticipated in-route traffic
- Advanced navigation features: Voice-guided, turn-by-turn navigation and real-time traffic re-routing
- One-click point of interest and location sharing: Send location or destination information out via social media, SMS or e-mail
To download MapQuest’s free navigation apps and to select a favorite team experience, visit the Amazon Appstore to get started.
Esri is actively recruiting smart people with all levels of experience who get the job done. These positions represent openings at our headquarters in Redlands, California, as well as our regional offices, and offer you a great opportunity to work with the best in our profession. We provide exceptional benefits, competitive salaries, profit sharing, a collaborative team environment, and much more. Join Esri and make a difference. Check esri.com/careers for a comprehensive listing.
Software Development and ArcGIS Product DevelopmentSoftware Developer, Geocoding—Leverage your creativity and coding ability to build geosearch algorithms that sift through big data to find things on the map.
Software Product Engineer, Imagery and Remote Sensing—Take charge in building new mapping applications for defense and intelligence communities that combine imagery and remote-sensing data with the power of ArcGIS.
Enterprise Geodatabase Product Engineer—Use your database design expertise to solve complex GIS implementation problems and create enterprise solutions for ArcGIS.
Product Manager, 3D—Be the 3D GIS evangelist within Esri and the public face of our 3D technology and vision, as well as help direct our internal 3D strategy.
GIS ServicesConsultant/Project Manager, Natural Resources/Environmental—Help clients translate real-world needs into practical, state-of-the-art, GIS technology-driven solutions through the implementation of Esri's enterprise software.
Program Manager—Oversee the deployment of Esri software solutions and empower organizations through large-scale projects that demonstrate the potential of the ArcGIS platform.
Educational Services and Technical SupportInstructors—Use your teaching skills and GIS knowledge to help our customers be successful. Instructors provide a rich learning environment through hands-on training, instructional delivery, and facilitated activities.
Support Analysts—Provide high-quality support to end users of Esri software to solve technical problems quickly and effectively.
SalesAccount Manager, Federal Health—Work directly with the US Department of Health and Human Services and its Operating Divisions to facilitate information sharing, analysis, and decision making through GIS technology.
Account Executive, Electric and Gas—Apply your industry knowledge to prospect business development activities and focus on selling Esri solutions to electric and gas accounts.
Account Manager, State and Local Government—Utilize your domain knowledge and your software sales expertise to help government agencies leverage geographic technology to achieve their business goals.
Partner Development Manager—Identify and develop relationships with new partners and expand the abilities and contributions of existing partners in transportation, manufacturing, and related industries.
Presales and Solution EngineeringSolution Engineers—Help shape and deliver on a strategy to demonstrate how Esri's ArcGIS platform can enable organizations to discover, use, make, and share maps for any device, anywhere they are.
Solution Architect—Support the Esri sales team worldwide by defining solutions and patterns that demonstrate the business value of our geospatial technology.
Technical Marketing Analyst, Utilities—Are you a passionate GIS professional who has strong GIS, electric and gas, telecommunications, or cable industry knowledge? Be involved in pre- and postsales support presenting Esri's latest geospatial solutions.
MarketingIndustry Solutions Managers (Health and Human Services, Retail, Electric Utility)—Promote and champion the use of GIS worldwide by developing and managing a comprehensive global marketing strategy.
Product Marketing Specialists—Are you results-oriented with experience in software technology? Utilize these skills to work with product, industry, and sales managers to develop and implement effective marketing plans and programs that increase sales and awareness of Esri's products.
The Landsat program is a series of earth-observing satellite missions jointly managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The first Landsat satellite launched in 1972, and the latest satellite in the series, Landsat 8, provides continuity, as well as improvements, on important global monitoring of our earth.
Landsat 8 was launched February 11, 2013, and contains two sensors. One collects 8-band multispectral imagery at 30-meter resolution, as well as panchromatic imagery at 15 meters. The other collects thermal imagery at 100-meter resolution. The orbit of the satellite results in it capturing 170-by-185-kilometer-sized scenes along a predefined path that returns to the same location every 16 days.
Landsat imagery has significant value in environmental and natural resource studies and research, such as agriculture and forestry. Both governmental and nongovernmental organizations interested in monitoring urbanization or analyzing concepts such as carbon sequestration will also find the continual monitoring of the earth at medium resolution to provide a wealth of information. The education aspects of the services are also boundless.
As with the other satellites, USGS manages the collection of imagery from Landsat 8. Every day, staff receive and process approximately 450 new Landsat 8 scenes. These scenes are available for download at no cost within 24 hours of acquisition. The current archive of Landsat scenes now contains more than four million scenes. Full-resolution, natural-color renderings of these are quickly accessible using LandsatLook, which is powered by ArcGIS for Server.
Landsat 8 Now Available for ArcGIS Online Users
A new set of Landsat 8 services released by Esri provides access to the latest and best Landsat 8 scenes. These services make the valuable Landsat scenes from USGS quickly accessible as multispectral, multitemporal image services that can be used in a wide range of web and desktop applications.
Esri first released Landsat imagery services—more than eight terabytes—to ArcGIS Online users in 2012. These image services made the collection of Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) scenes spanning the years of 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010 accessible as more than 20 dynamic, multispectral, and multitemporal image services. These dynamic services enable a wide range of client applications, such as temporal access to any of the band combinations, as well as products such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) without the need to download or locally process any data.
For the Landsat 8 services, Esri daily downloads the latest, approximately 300 Landsat 8 scenes and adds them to a set of image services that contain the best and most recent 50,000 Landsat 8 scenes, which require about 60 terabytes for storage. These scenes are hosted on Esri's cloud infrastructure and available for access in different modes.
By default, the user views the best scenes. The best scene is determined using a weighting of cloud coverage and age of the scenes. Users can reorder the scenes based on metadata attributes, lock onto a specific scene, or use a time slider to see how an area changes with time.
Not all scenes are kept; otherwise, the data volumes for storage would continually increase. Instead, older scenes are removed. Typically, the latest four scenes with less than 50 percent cloud coverage are kept, as well as the scene that is nearly cloud free and closest in date to the GLS 2000 scene, so as to aid in longer-term change analysis.
Services can be accessed in web maps but can also be used in a range of applications and ArcGIS for Desktop. A subscription to ArcGIS Online is required to access the services, but there is no charge for usage.
Many Services Available in the Cloud
A number of different image services are served from the same source. The most used is the Landsat 8 Views service. This allows users to view a range of different band combinations including natural color (bands 4,3,2) and color infrared (bands 5,4,3), which highlight photosynthesis in plants. The agriculture band combination (bands 6,5,2) highlights differences in various crop types. The SWIR band combination (bands 7,6,5) provides better penetration for clouds. The bathymetric option (bands 4,2,1) provides better water penetration and is especially useful for coastal applications.
Users can also select any user-defined band combination. The functions can be applied with fixed enhancements or with the Dynamic Range Adjustment Stretch, which requests the server to maximize the contrast so as to get the most out of the extended dynamic range of the sensors.
The Landsat 8 Views service also provides two indexes. The Colorized NDVI provides information on the health of vegetation, while the Colorized Normalized Difference Water Index highlights areas that have high moisture content.
The Pan-sharpened service provides enhanced natural color imagery by sharpening the natural color bands (4,3,2) with the 15-meter panchromatic imagery. The Panchromatic service provides access directly to the panchromatic imagery. Again, the dynamic range adjustment capability ensures that maximum information content is available even when used in web applications.
While all these services return 8-bit rendered versions of different products, the Analytic service enables applications to access the full range of data values that might be required for some analysis applications.
Prototype global monthly and annual WELD 30m products generated from Landsat 5 and 7 data on NASA’s fastest supercomputer were made available for climate year 2010 from the USGS EROS (http://globalweld.cr.usgs.gov/collections/).
This is the beginnings of the global WELD product suite that will provide gridded monthly and annual Landsat 30m information for any terrestrial non-Antarctic location for six 3-year epochs spaced every 5 years from 1985 to 2010.
Source: SDSU GSCE
You may be interested with this recent video from NASA featuring space experts discussing the search for Life in the vast universe.
"NASA space-based observatories are making unprecedented new discoveries and revealing worlds never before seen. During a televised panel discussion of leading science and engineering experts at NASA Headquarters on Monday, July 14, a scientific and technological roadmap to lead to the discovery of potentially habitable worlds among the stars was addressed. The agency's next step, the James Webb Space Telescope (Webb telescope), was featured as a new tool that will continue to help scientists rewrite scientific textbooks long after its scheduled launch in 2018."
Scene Sharp USA will formally introduce the Fuze Go Plugin for ENVI this week at the Esri User Conference in San Diego. The plugin gives ENVI software users access to Fuze Go MS Sharp, an automated multispectral image fusion software which can simultaneously fuse up to 30 spectral bands of data from inside the popular ENVI geospatial processing package.
“The Exelis ENVI software is widely known for its multi- and hyperspectral image processing capabilities and is an ideal platform for geospatial information users to access the automated Fuze Go MS Sharp image fusion software,” said Ian Lucas, President and CEO of Scene Sharp Technologies Incorporated™.
Scene Sharp will demonstrate the Fuze Go plugin for ENVI along with the full line of Fuze Go software products in booth #410 at the Esri User Conference being held July 14-18 in San Diego.
The plugin gives users the option of accessing the Fuze Go MS Sharp software either within the ENVI workflow or outside of it so that fusion can be performed as a stand-alone application. This frees up the ENVI software license for other image processing activities. No GIS or image processing experience is needed to utilize the Fuze Go tools.
Fuze Go is a fully automated technology that enables users to quickly and easily fuse data sets to add color to non-colorized satellite and aerial imagery with just a few mouse clicks. One of its most common applications is pan-sharpening. By colorizing image data, GIS users can visualize and extract richer information content from remotely sensed data to make better informed decisions.
Also at the 2014 Esri UC, Scene Sharp USA will demonstrate the powerful processing capabilities in its Fuze Go SAR Sharp application, which was designed for more effective exploitation of data captured by satellite-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors. Fuze Go SAR Sharp fuses gray-scale radar data with optical multispectral bands to colorize the SAR data set. An industry first is the “Dynamic Reader” which allows pre-process on the fly viewing of SAR imagery with real time adjustment of color intensity being added to the scene.
Fuze Go MS Sharp and SAR Sharp are available for purchase for an annual license fee. Batch processing versions of the software packages are also offered to perform automatic fusion of multiple optical or SAR scenes.
To learn more about the Fuze Go products, please contact Kevin Marasch at 1-216-901-9800. Please visit www.fuzego.com to try the software at no charge for 15 days.