Title: Area between Peaks Feature in the Derivative Reflectance Curve as a Sensitive Indicator of Change in Chlorophyll Concentration
Eric Ariel L. Salas, Geoffrey M. Henebry
Abstract: Vegetation spectral features can detect chlorophyll concentrations. Two key spectral features evident in the first derivative (FD) of reflectance constitute the two main peaks: one located around 685-705 nm and the other near 710-725 nm. We propose that the area between peaks (ABP) can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in the photosynthetic pigments at leaf level and demonstrate it using a high-spectral-resolution dataset of maize leaves collected by Gitelson and coworkers (2005). We find significant high positive correlations (r2 > 0.90) between chlorophyll concentrations and both the ABP and its continuum length feature. Read more here.
Open Foris: Open Source Software Tools Launched. Press Release. FAO has launched free software tools that it hopes will improve the way many developing nations monitor the state of their forests to tackle deforestation and climate change.
The tools are designed to assist countries through the entire lifecycle of a forest inventory - from assessment, design and field data collection to analysis and reporting. The governments of Finland and Germany have supported the development of the software called Open Foris.
Global knowledge sharing platform
The Forestry Department of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization helps nations manage their forests in a sustainable way. Accurate information about forests is crucial for governments to manage their natural resources sustainably, but nearly 80 percent of developing countries have difficulty obtaining and using basic information about their forest resources.
At the same time, deforestation and forest degradation - largely taking place in developing countries - are among the largest sources of carbon emissions globally caused by humans.
"Many countries simply do not have a full picture of what is happening in their forests, and without that knowledge it is hard to develop effective forest policies to combat deforestation and forest degradation or to advance national climate change strategies," Eduardo Rojas-Briales, Assistant Director-General for Forestry, explained.
"We hope that Open Foris will be a game changer, as it is the first comprehensive open source tool that will not only guide the countries through the whole process of data collection and analysis but will also encourage and facilitate open knowledge sharing in an innovative way. Increased transparency will help the policy makers obtain the information they need to make informed decisions," he added.
The new FAO tools also simplify the complex process of transforming raw data such as tree measurements and satellite imagery into valuable information in the form of interactive web pages with statistics, graphs, maps and reports.
In addition, the software includes built-in tools to help countries meet international reporting requirements, for example in the context of REDD+ activities related to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and increasing the carbon stock in forests.
Piloting in more than 10 countries
Released at the 2014 International Union of Forest Research Organizations' World Congress in Salt Lake City, Open Foris tools are already being successfully tested in more than 10 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
For example, earlier this year Ecuador and Tanzania completed their first national forest inventories with the help of Open Foris tools, and a number of experts from other countries, such as Argentina, Bhutan, Papua New Guinea and Uruguay have recently received training to use different components of the software.
Viet Nam carries out a national forest inventory every five years, and for the first time has been piloting Open Foris in one region after adapting the open source code to use the software in Vietnamese.
Forest rangers collect information on canopy cover and the number, size, species and quality of trees as well as the use of forest resources by local populations before entering the data into Open Foris software back at the office.
"It enables us to calculate variables and changes to the forest and tree resources within a certain period, as well as changes to other environmental values of the forests such as carbon pools, biodiversity and non-timber forest products," said Ho Manh Tuong of Viet Nam'sForest Inventory and Planning Institute. "Through the program, the complete national forest stock can be assessed."
The inventory will soon become even more efficient when rangers start using an Open Foris tool that enables them to enter data directly with their smartphones or tablets, eliminating the need to input information collected on paper forms.
Open Foris tools in detail
Collect EarthWorks with Google Earth for a pre-assessment of forest resources
Collect DesktopHelps design a survey specifying all the types of data to be collected and produces a data entry interface
Collect MobileEnables data entry for hand-held devices and tablets during collection in the field
CalcAnalyses data and helps create results visualization
Processes remote sensing and other geospatial data
Free forestry software in the battle against climate change
David Morales, a Forestry Officer with FAO in Rome, explains more about why these new tools are necessary
Open Foris tools
FAO Forest Monitoring and Assessment
Finland-FAO Forestry Programme
Capacity Building for REDD+
@FAOForestry - The Forestry Department of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization helps nations manage their forests in a sustainable way.
News on humanitarian response to disasters, emergencies and food security crises:
FAO YouTube Channel:
Achieving food security for all is at the heart of FAO's efforts - to make sure people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives. Our three main goals are: the eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; the elimination of poverty and the driving forward of economic and social progress for all; and, the sustainable management and utilization of natural resources, including land, water, air, climate and genetic resources for the benefit of present and future generations.
FAO creates and shares critical information about food, agriculture and natural resources in the form of global public goods. But this is not a one-way flow. We play a connector role, through identifying and working with different partners with established expertise, and facilitating a dialogue between those who have the knowledge and those who need it. By turning knowledge into action, FAO links the field to national, regional and global initiatives in a mutually reinforcing cycle. By joining forces, we facilitate partnerships for food and nutrition security, agriculture and rural development between governments, development partners, civil society and the private sector.
An intergovernmental organization, FAO has 194 Member Nations, two associate members and one member organization, the European Union. Headquartered in Rome, Italy, FAO is present in over 130 countries. http://www.fao.org
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Nepal's National Geospatial Portal was launched during the Bhutan GIS Expo in Thimphu on Monday. The National Geospatial Portal will serve as a gateway for users across Bhutan to discover, access, and share geospatial data and information.
The event was jointly organized by the National Land Commission (NLC) of Bhutan and the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). The portal was launched to commemorate the third wedding anniversary of Bhutan's King and Queen.
With the portal, users will be able to access data related to Bhutan in one place. The portal takes Bhutan a step closer to fulfilling its vision of building a coordinated national spatial data infrastructure.
A Postdoctoral Remote Sensing Scientist with research interests in quantitative remote sensing is sought to work on the NASA funded Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project (http://weld.cr.usgs.gov/). The research will focus over the next 5 years on the expansion of the WELD products to global scale and development of Landsat 5, 7 and 8 time series processing algorithms in a Linux environment. The position will involve liaison with the Landsat Science Team (http://landsat.usgs.gov/Landsat_Science_Team_2012-2017.php) and with NASA AMES supercomputer researchers (https://c3.nasa.gov/nex/). The Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence is a dynamic internationally recognized research center located in a small university town in South Dakota which was recently ranked the state with the 5th highest quality of life in the US. The GIScCE is a friendly research environment that has excellent research infrastructure and computing support: (http://globalmonitoring.sdstate.edu/files/GIScCE_Triennial_Report.pdf).
Please send a curriculum vitae, brief statement of research experiences and goals, and contact information for three references to Prof. David Roy, Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Wecota Hall, Box 506B, Brookings, SD 57007-3510, USA (or via email to: firstname.lastname@example.org).
South Dakota State University is committed to affirmative action, equal opportunity and the diversity of its faculty, staff and students. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.
Non-US citizens may apply.
SDSU is an AA/EEO employer.
Winner of the 2014 Leptoukh Lecture Announcement
The Earth and Space Science Informatics (ESSI) Focus Group is proud to announce that this year's winner of the Leptoukh lecture is Bryan Lawrence from the University of Reading's National Center for Atmospheric Science (NCAS). The title of his talk will be: Trends in Computing for Climate Research, and it will be given at the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting. An excerpt of the abstract:
The grand challenges of climate science will stress our informatics infrastructure severely in the next decade. Our drive for ever greater simulation resolution/complexity/length/repetition, coupled with new remote and in-situ sensing platforms present us with problems in computation, data handling, and information management, to name but three. These problems are compounded by the background trends: Moore's Law is no longer doing us any favours: computing is getting harder to exploit as we have to bite the parallelism bullet, and Kryder's Law (if it ever existed) isn't going to help us store the data volumes we can see ahead. The variety of data, the rate it arrives, and the complexity of the tools we need and use, all strain our ability to cope. The solutions, as ever, will revolve around more and better software, but "more" and "better" will require some attention.
In this talk we discuss how these issues have played out in the context of CMIP5, and might be expected to play out in CMIP6 and successors. Although the CMIPs will provide the thread, we will digress into modelling per se, regional climate modelling (CORDEX), observations from space (Obs4MIPs and friends), climate services (as they might play out in Europe), and the dependency of progress on how we manage people in our institutions. It will be seen that most of the issues we discuss apply to the wider environmental sciences, if not science in general.
China has launched two satellites into orbit -- Yaogan-21 remote sensing satellite and the Tiantuo-2 satellite -- from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, in north China’s Shanxi Province.
The Yaogan-21 will be used for scientific experiments, surveying natural resources and crop yields and helping with disaster relief. The Tiantuo-2 is designed for small satellite experiments.
NASA's Office of Education is accepting new proposals under the Education Opportunities in NASA STEM (EONS) 2014 NASA Research Announcement for the MUREP Institutional Research Opportunity (MIRO) appendix. This effort was previously titled as the NASA University Research Centers Project and has now been consolidated into the MUREP Program within the NASA Office of Education. Through the EONS omnibus solicitation, the opportunity MIRO has been released.
Overall, MIRO awards aim to promote Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) literacy and to enhance and sustain the capability of minority serving institutions to perform NASA-related research and education, which directly supports NASA’s four Mission Directorates – Aeronautics Research, Human Exploration and Space Operations, Science, and Space Technology.
Proposals are due November 12, 2014.
For more information regarding the MIRO Solicitation, please visit the NASA EONS page in NSPIRES http://nspires.nasaprs.com/external/.